// Copyright (C) 2015  Davis E. King (davis@dlib.net)
// License: Boost Software License   See LICENSE.txt for the full license.
#undef DLIB_DNn_LOSS_ABSTRACT_H_
#ifdef DLIB_DNn_LOSS_ABSTRACT_H_

#include "core_abstract.h"
#include "../image_processing/full_object_detection_abstract.h"

namespace dlib
{

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    class EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                A loss layer is the final layer in a deep neural network.  It computes the
                task loss.  That is, it computes a number that tells us how well the
                network is performing on some task, such as predicting a binary label.  

                You can use one of the loss layers that comes with dlib (defined below).
                But importantly, you are able to define your own loss layers to suit your
                needs.  You do this by creating a class that defines an interface matching
                the one described by this EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ class.  Note that there is no
                dlib::EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ type.  It is shown here purely to document the
                interface that a loss layer must implement.

                A loss layer can optionally provide a to_label() method that converts the
                output of a network into a user defined type.  If to_label() is not
                provided then the operator() methods of add_loss_layer will not be
                available, but otherwise everything will function as normal.

                Finally, note that there are two broad flavors of loss layer, supervised
                and unsupervised.  The EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ as shown here is a supervised
                layer.  To make an unsupervised loss you simply leave out the label_type
                typedef, to_label(), and the truth iterator argument to
                compute_loss_value_and_gradient().
        !*/

    public:

        typedef whatever_type_you_use_for_labels label_type;

        EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ (
        );
        /*!
            ensures
                - EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ objects are default constructable.
        !*/

        EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ (
            const EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_& item
        );
        /*!
            ensures
                - EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_ objects are copy constructable.
        !*/

        // Implementing to_label() is optional.
        template <
            typename SUB_TYPE,
            typename label_iterator
            >
        void to_label (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const SUB_TYPE& sub,
            label_iterator iter
        ) const;
        /*!
            requires
                - SUBNET implements the SUBNET interface defined at the top of
                  layers_abstract.h.
                - input_tensor was given as input to the network sub and the outputs are
                  now visible in layer<i>(sub).get_output(), for all valid i.
                - input_tensor.num_samples() > 0
                - input_tensor.num_samples()%sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 0.
                - iter == an iterator pointing to the beginning of a range of
                  input_tensor.num_samples()/sub.sample_expansion_factor() elements.  Moreover,
                  they must be label_type elements.
            ensures
                - Converts the output of the provided network to label_type objects and
                  stores the results into the range indicated by iter.  In particular, for
                  all valid i, it will be the case that:
                    *(iter+i/sub.sample_expansion_factor()) is populated based on the output of
                    sub and corresponds to the ith sample in input_tensor.
        !*/

        template <
            typename const_label_iterator,
            typename SUBNET
            >
        double compute_loss_value_and_gradient (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const_label_iterator truth, 
            SUBNET& sub
        ) const;
        /*!
            requires
                - SUBNET implements the SUBNET interface defined at the top of
                  layers_abstract.h.
                - input_tensor was given as input to the network sub and the outputs are
                  now visible in layer<i>(sub).get_output(), for all valid i.
                - input_tensor.num_samples() > 0
                - input_tensor.num_samples()%sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 0.
                - for all valid i:
                    - layer<i>(sub).get_gradient_input() has the same dimensions as
                      layer<i>(sub).get_output().
                - truth == an iterator pointing to the beginning of a range of
                  input_tensor.num_samples()/sub.sample_expansion_factor() elements.  Moreover,
                  they must be label_type elements.
                - for all valid i:
                    - *(truth+i/sub.sample_expansion_factor()) is the label of the ith sample in
                      input_tensor.
            ensures
                - This function computes a loss function that describes how well the output
                  of sub matches the expected labels given by truth.  Let's write the loss
                  function as L(input_tensor, truth, sub).  
                - Then compute_loss_value_and_gradient() computes the gradient of L() with
                  respect to the outputs in sub.  Specifically, compute_loss_value_and_gradient() 
                  assigns the gradients into sub by performing the following tensor
                  assignments, for all valid i: 
                    - layer<i>(sub).get_gradient_input() = the gradient of
                      L(input_tensor,truth,sub) with respect to layer<i>(sub).get_output().
                - returns L(input_tensor,truth,sub)
        !*/
    };

    std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, const EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_& item);
    /*!
        print a string describing this layer.
    !*/

    void to_xml(const EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_& item, std::ostream& out);
    /*!
        This function is optional, but required if you want to print your networks with
        net_to_xml().  Therefore, to_xml() prints a layer as XML.
    !*/

    void serialize(const EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_& item, std::ostream& out);
    void deserialize(EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_& item, std::istream& in);
    /*!
        provides serialization support  
    !*/

    // For each loss layer you define, always define an add_loss_layer template so that
    // layers can be easily composed.  Moreover, the convention is that the layer class
    // ends with an _ while the add_loss_layer template has the same name but without the
    // trailing _.
    template <typename SUBNET>
    using EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER = add_loss_layer<EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_, SUBNET>;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    class loss_binary_hinge_ 
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                This object implements the loss layer interface defined above by
                EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_.  In particular, it implements the hinge loss, which is
                appropriate for binary classification problems.  Therefore, the possible
                labels when using this loss are +1 and -1.  Moreover, it will cause the
                network to produce outputs > 0 when predicting a member of the +1 class and
                values < 0 otherwise.
        !*/
    public:

        typedef float label_type;

        template <
            typename SUB_TYPE,
            typename label_iterator
            >
        void to_label (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const SUB_TYPE& sub,
            label_iterator iter
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::to_label() except
            it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
            and the output label is the raw score for each classified object.  If the score
            is > 0 then the classifier is predicting the +1 class, otherwise it is
            predicting the -1 class.
        !*/

        template <
            typename const_label_iterator,
            typename SUBNET
            >
        double compute_loss_value_and_gradient (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const_label_iterator truth, 
            SUBNET& sub
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::compute_loss_value_and_gradient() 
            except it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
                - all values pointed to by truth are +1 or -1.
        !*/

    };

    template <typename SUBNET>
    using loss_binary_hinge = add_loss_layer<loss_binary_hinge_, SUBNET>;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    class loss_binary_log_ 
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                This object implements the loss layer interface defined above by
                EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_.  In particular, it implements the log loss, which is
                appropriate for binary classification problems.  Therefore, the possible
                labels when using this loss are +1 and -1.  Moreover, it will cause the
                network to produce outputs > 0 when predicting a member of the +1 class and
                values < 0 otherwise.

                To be more specific, this object contains a sigmoid layer followed by a 
                cross-entropy layer.  
        !*/
    public:

        typedef float label_type;

        template <
            typename SUB_TYPE,
            typename label_iterator
            >
        void to_label (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const SUB_TYPE& sub,
            label_iterator iter
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::to_label() except
            it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
            and the output label is the raw score for each classified object.  If the score
            is > 0 then the classifier is predicting the +1 class, otherwise it is
            predicting the -1 class.
        !*/

        template <
            typename const_label_iterator,
            typename SUBNET
            >
        double compute_loss_value_and_gradient (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const_label_iterator truth, 
            SUBNET& sub
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::compute_loss_value_and_gradient() 
            except it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
                - all values pointed to by truth are +1 or -1.
        !*/

    };

    template <typename SUBNET>
    using loss_binary_log = add_loss_layer<loss_binary_log_, SUBNET>;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    class loss_multiclass_log_ 
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                This object implements the loss layer interface defined above by
                EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_.  In particular, it implements the multiclass logistic
                regression loss (e.g. negative log-likelihood loss), which is appropriate
                for multiclass classification problems.  This means that the possible
                labels when using this loss are integers >= 0.  
                
                Moreover, if after training you were to replace the loss layer of the
                network with a softmax layer, the network outputs would give the
                probabilities of each class assignment.  That is, if you have K classes
                then the network should output tensors with the tensor::k()'th dimension
                equal to K.  Applying softmax to these K values gives the probabilities of
                each class.  The index into that K dimensional vector with the highest
                probability is the predicted class label.
        !*/

    public:

        typedef unsigned long label_type;

        template <
            typename SUB_TYPE,
            typename label_iterator
            >
        void to_label (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const SUB_TYPE& sub,
            label_iterator iter
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::to_label() except
            it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
            and the output label is the predicted class for each classified object.  The number
            of possible output classes is sub.get_output().k().
        !*/

        template <
            typename const_label_iterator,
            typename SUBNET
            >
        double compute_loss_value_and_gradient (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const_label_iterator truth, 
            SUBNET& sub
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::compute_loss_value_and_gradient() 
            except it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().nr() == 1
                - sub.get_output().nc() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
                - all values pointed to by truth are < sub.get_output().k()
        !*/

    };

    template <typename SUBNET>
    using loss_multiclass_log = add_loss_layer<loss_multiclass_log_, SUBNET>;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    struct mmod_options
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                This object contains all the parameters that control the behavior of loss_mmod_.
        !*/

    public:

        mmod_options() = default;

        // This kind of object detector is a sliding window detector.  These two parameters
        // determine the size of the sliding window.  Since you will usually use the MMOD
        // loss with an image pyramid the detector size determines the size of the smallest
        // object you can detect.
        unsigned long detector_width = 80;
        unsigned long detector_height = 80;

        // These parameters control how we penalize different kinds of mistakes.  See 
        // Max-Margin Object Detection by Davis E. King (http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00046)
        // for further details.
        double loss_per_false_alarm = 1;
        double loss_per_missed_target = 1;

        // A detection must have an intersection-over-union value greater than this for us
        // to consider it a match against a ground truth box.
        double truth_match_iou_threshold = 0.5;

        // When doing non-max suppression, we use overlaps_nms to decide if a box overlaps
        // an already output detection and should therefore be thrown out.
        test_box_overlap overlaps_nms = test_box_overlap(0.4);

        // Any mmod_rect in the training data that has its ignore field set to true defines
        // an "ignore zone" in an image.  Any detection from that area is totally ignored
        // by the optimizer.  Therefore, this overlaps_ignore field defines how we decide
        // if a box falls into an ignore zone.  You use these ignore zones if there are
        // objects in your dataset that you are unsure if you want to detect or otherwise
        // don't care if the detector gets them or not.  
        test_box_overlap overlaps_ignore;

        mmod_options (
            const std::vector<std::vector<mmod_rect>>& boxes,
            const unsigned long target_size = 6400
        );
        /*!
            ensures
                - This function tries to automatically set the MMOD options so reasonable
                  values assuming you have a training dataset of boxes.size() images, where
                  the ith image contains objects boxes[i] you want to detect and the
                  objects are clearly visible when scale so that they are target_size
                  pixels in area.
                - In particular, this function will automatically set the detector width
                  and height based on the average box size in boxes and the requested
                  target_size.
                - This function will also set the overlaps_nms tester to the most
                  restrictive tester that doesn't reject anything in boxes.
        !*/
    };

    void serialize(const mmod_options& item, std::ostream& out);
    void deserialize(mmod_options& item, std::istream& in);

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    class loss_mmod_ 
    {
        /*!
            WHAT THIS OBJECT REPRESENTS
                This object implements the loss layer interface defined above by
                EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_.  In particular, it implements the Max Margin Object
                Detection loss defined in the paper:
                    Max-Margin Object Detection by Davis E. King (http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00046).
               
                This means you use this loss if you want to detect the locations of objects
                in images.

                It should also be noted that this loss layer requires an input layer that
                defines the following functions:
                    - image_contained_point()
                    - tensor_space_to_image_space()
                    - image_space_to_tensor_space()
                A reference implementation of them and their definitions can be found in
                the input_rgb_image_pyramid object, which is the recommended input layer to
                be used with loss_mmod_.
        !*/

    public:

        typedef std::vector<mmod_rect> label_type;

        loss_mmod_(
        );
        /*!
            ensures
                - #get_options() == mmod_options()
        !*/

        loss_mmod_(
            mmod_options options_
        );
        /*!
            ensures
                - #get_options() == options_
        !*/

        const mmod_options& get_options (
        ) const;
        /*!
            ensures
                - returns the options object that defines the general behavior of this loss layer.
        !*/

        template <
            typename SUB_TYPE,
            typename label_iterator
            >
        void to_label (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const SUB_TYPE& sub,
            label_iterator iter,
            double adjust_threshold = 0
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::to_label() except
            it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
            Also, the output labels are std::vectors of mmod_rects where, for each mmod_rect R,
            we have the following interpretations:
                - R.rect == the location of an object in the image.
                - R.detection_confidence the score for the object, the bigger the score the
                  more confident the detector is that an object is really there.  Only
                  objects with a detection_confidence > adjust_threshold are output.  So if
                  you want to output more objects (that are also of less confidence) you
                  can call to_label() with a smaller value of adjust_threshold.
                - R.ignore == false (this value is unused by to_label()).
        !*/

        template <
            typename const_label_iterator,
            typename SUBNET
            >
        double compute_loss_value_and_gradient (
            const tensor& input_tensor,
            const_label_iterator truth, 
            SUBNET& sub
        ) const;
        /*!
            This function has the same interface as EXAMPLE_LOSS_LAYER_::compute_loss_value_and_gradient() 
            except it has the additional calling requirements that: 
                - sub.get_output().k() == 1
                - sub.get_output().num_samples() == input_tensor.num_samples()
                - sub.sample_expansion_factor() == 1
            Also, the loss value returned is roughly equal to the average number of
            mistakes made per image.  This is the sum of false alarms and missed
            detections, weighted by the loss weights for these types of mistakes specified
            in the mmod_options.
        !*/
    };

    template <typename SUBNET>
    using loss_mmod = add_loss_layer<loss_mmod_, SUBNET>;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

}

#endif // DLIB_DNn_LOSS_ABSTRACT_H_