/*
    pybind11/stl.h: Transparent conversion for STL data types

    Copyright (c) 2016 Wenzel Jakob <wenzel.jakob@epfl.ch>

    All rights reserved. Use of this source code is governed by a
    BSD-style license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
*/

#pragma once

#include "pybind11.h"
#include <set>
#include <unordered_set>
#include <map>
#include <unordered_map>
#include <iostream>
#include <list>
#include <valarray>

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#pragma warning(push)
#pragma warning(disable: 4127) // warning C4127: Conditional expression is constant
#endif

#ifdef __has_include
// std::optional (but including it in c++14 mode isn't allowed)
#  if defined(PYBIND11_CPP17) && __has_include(<optional>)
#    include <optional>
#    define PYBIND11_HAS_OPTIONAL 1
#  endif
// std::experimental::optional (but not allowed in c++11 mode)
#  if defined(PYBIND11_CPP14) && (__has_include(<experimental/optional>) && \
                                 !__has_include(<optional>))
#    include <experimental/optional>
#    define PYBIND11_HAS_EXP_OPTIONAL 1
#  endif
// std::variant
#  if defined(PYBIND11_CPP17) && __has_include(<variant>)
#    include <variant>
#    define PYBIND11_HAS_VARIANT 1
#  endif
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && defined(PYBIND11_CPP17)
#  include <optional>
#  include <variant>
#  define PYBIND11_HAS_OPTIONAL 1
#  define PYBIND11_HAS_VARIANT 1
#endif

NAMESPACE_BEGIN(PYBIND11_NAMESPACE)
NAMESPACE_BEGIN(detail)

/// Extracts an const lvalue reference or rvalue reference for U based on the type of T (e.g. for
/// forwarding a container element).  Typically used indirect via forwarded_type(), below.
template <typename T, typename U>
using forwarded_type = conditional_t<
    std::is_lvalue_reference<T>::value, remove_reference_t<U> &, remove_reference_t<U> &&>;

/// Forwards a value U as rvalue or lvalue according to whether T is rvalue or lvalue; typically
/// used for forwarding a container's elements.
template <typename T, typename U>
forwarded_type<T, U> forward_like(U &&u) {
    return std::forward<detail::forwarded_type<T, U>>(std::forward<U>(u));
}

template <typename Type, typename Key> struct set_caster {
    using type = Type;
    using key_conv = make_caster<Key>;

    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        if (!isinstance<pybind11::set>(src))
            return false;
        auto s = reinterpret_borrow<pybind11::set>(src);
        value.clear();
        for (auto entry : s) {
            key_conv conv;
            if (!conv.load(entry, convert))
                return false;
            value.insert(cast_op<Key &&>(std::move(conv)));
        }
        return true;
    }

    template <typename T>
    static handle cast(T &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        pybind11::set s;
        for (auto &&value : src) {
            auto value_ = reinterpret_steal<object>(key_conv::cast(forward_like<T>(value), policy, parent));
            if (!value_ || !s.add(value_))
                return handle();
        }
        return s.release();
    }

    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(type, _("Set[") + key_conv::name() + _("]"));
};

template <typename Type, typename Key, typename Value> struct map_caster {
    using key_conv   = make_caster<Key>;
    using value_conv = make_caster<Value>;

    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        if (!isinstance<dict>(src))
            return false;
        auto d = reinterpret_borrow<dict>(src);
        value.clear();
        for (auto it : d) {
            key_conv kconv;
            value_conv vconv;
            if (!kconv.load(it.first.ptr(), convert) ||
                !vconv.load(it.second.ptr(), convert))
                return false;
            value.emplace(cast_op<Key &&>(std::move(kconv)), cast_op<Value &&>(std::move(vconv)));
        }
        return true;
    }

    template <typename T>
    static handle cast(T &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        dict d;
        for (auto &&kv : src) {
            auto key = reinterpret_steal<object>(key_conv::cast(forward_like<T>(kv.first), policy, parent));
            auto value = reinterpret_steal<object>(value_conv::cast(forward_like<T>(kv.second), policy, parent));
            if (!key || !value)
                return handle();
            d[key] = value;
        }
        return d.release();
    }

    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(Type, _("Dict[") + key_conv::name() + _(", ") + value_conv::name() + _("]"));
};

template <typename Type, typename Value> struct list_caster {
    using value_conv = make_caster<Value>;

    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        if (!isinstance<sequence>(src))
            return false;
        auto s = reinterpret_borrow<sequence>(src);
        value.clear();
        reserve_maybe(s, &value);
        for (auto it : s) {
            value_conv conv;
            if (!conv.load(it, convert))
                return false;
            value.push_back(cast_op<Value &&>(std::move(conv)));
        }
        return true;
    }

private:
    template <typename T = Type,
              enable_if_t<std::is_same<decltype(std::declval<T>().reserve(0)), void>::value, int> = 0>
    void reserve_maybe(sequence s, Type *) { value.reserve(s.size()); }
    void reserve_maybe(sequence, void *) { }

public:
    template <typename T>
    static handle cast(T &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        list l(src.size());
        size_t index = 0;
        for (auto &&value : src) {
            auto value_ = reinterpret_steal<object>(value_conv::cast(forward_like<T>(value), policy, parent));
            if (!value_)
                return handle();
            PyList_SET_ITEM(l.ptr(), (ssize_t) index++, value_.release().ptr()); // steals a reference
        }
        return l.release();
    }

    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(Type, _("List[") + value_conv::name() + _("]"));
};

template <typename Type, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::vector<Type, Alloc>>
 : list_caster<std::vector<Type, Alloc>, Type> { };

template <typename Type, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::list<Type, Alloc>>
 : list_caster<std::list<Type, Alloc>, Type> { };

template <typename ArrayType, typename Value, bool Resizable, size_t Size = 0> struct array_caster {
    using value_conv = make_caster<Value>;

private:
    template <bool R = Resizable>
    bool require_size(enable_if_t<R, size_t> size) {
        if (value.size() != size)
            value.resize(size);
        return true;
    }
    template <bool R = Resizable>
    bool require_size(enable_if_t<!R, size_t> size) {
        return size == Size;
    }

public:
    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        if (!isinstance<list>(src))
            return false;
        auto l = reinterpret_borrow<list>(src);
        if (!require_size(l.size()))
            return false;
        size_t ctr = 0;
        for (auto it : l) {
            value_conv conv;
            if (!conv.load(it, convert))
                return false;
            value[ctr++] = cast_op<Value &&>(std::move(conv));
        }
        return true;
    }

    template <typename T>
    static handle cast(T &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        list l(src.size());
        size_t index = 0;
        for (auto &&value : src) {
            auto value_ = reinterpret_steal<object>(value_conv::cast(forward_like<T>(value), policy, parent));
            if (!value_)
                return handle();
            PyList_SET_ITEM(l.ptr(), (ssize_t) index++, value_.release().ptr()); // steals a reference
        }
        return l.release();
    }

    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(ArrayType, _("List[") + value_conv::name() + _<Resizable>(_(""), _("[") + _<Size>() + _("]")) + _("]"));
};

template <typename Type, size_t Size> struct type_caster<std::array<Type, Size>>
 : array_caster<std::array<Type, Size>, Type, false, Size> { };

template <typename Type> struct type_caster<std::valarray<Type>>
 : array_caster<std::valarray<Type>, Type, true> { };

template <typename Key, typename Compare, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::set<Key, Compare, Alloc>>
  : set_caster<std::set<Key, Compare, Alloc>, Key> { };

template <typename Key, typename Hash, typename Equal, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::unordered_set<Key, Hash, Equal, Alloc>>
  : set_caster<std::unordered_set<Key, Hash, Equal, Alloc>, Key> { };

template <typename Key, typename Value, typename Compare, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::map<Key, Value, Compare, Alloc>>
  : map_caster<std::map<Key, Value, Compare, Alloc>, Key, Value> { };

template <typename Key, typename Value, typename Hash, typename Equal, typename Alloc> struct type_caster<std::unordered_map<Key, Value, Hash, Equal, Alloc>>
  : map_caster<std::unordered_map<Key, Value, Hash, Equal, Alloc>, Key, Value> { };

// This type caster is intended to be used for std::optional and std::experimental::optional
template<typename T> struct optional_caster {
    using value_conv = make_caster<typename T::value_type>;

    template <typename T_>
    static handle cast(T_ &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        if (!src)
            return none().inc_ref();
        return value_conv::cast(*std::forward<T_>(src), policy, parent);
    }

    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        if (!src) {
            return false;
        } else if (src.is_none()) {
            return true;  // default-constructed value is already empty
        }
        value_conv inner_caster;
        if (!inner_caster.load(src, convert))
            return false;

        value.emplace(cast_op<typename T::value_type &&>(std::move(inner_caster)));
        return true;
    }

    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(T, _("Optional[") + value_conv::name() + _("]"));
};

#if PYBIND11_HAS_OPTIONAL
template<typename T> struct type_caster<std::optional<T>>
    : public optional_caster<std::optional<T>> {};

template<> struct type_caster<std::nullopt_t>
    : public void_caster<std::nullopt_t> {};
#endif

#if PYBIND11_HAS_EXP_OPTIONAL
template<typename T> struct type_caster<std::experimental::optional<T>>
    : public optional_caster<std::experimental::optional<T>> {};

template<> struct type_caster<std::experimental::nullopt_t>
    : public void_caster<std::experimental::nullopt_t> {};
#endif

/// Visit a variant and cast any found type to Python
struct variant_caster_visitor {
    return_value_policy policy;
    handle parent;

    using result_type = handle; // required by boost::variant in C++11

    template <typename T>
    result_type operator()(T &&src) const {
        return make_caster<T>::cast(std::forward<T>(src), policy, parent);
    }
};

/// Helper class which abstracts away variant's `visit` function. `std::variant` and similar
/// `namespace::variant` types which provide a `namespace::visit()` function are handled here
/// automatically using argument-dependent lookup. Users can provide specializations for other
/// variant-like classes, e.g. `boost::variant` and `boost::apply_visitor`.
template <template<typename...> class Variant>
struct visit_helper {
    template <typename... Args>
    static auto call(Args &&...args) -> decltype(visit(std::forward<Args>(args)...)) {
        return visit(std::forward<Args>(args)...);
    }
};

/// Generic variant caster
template <typename Variant> struct variant_caster;

template <template<typename...> class V, typename... Ts>
struct variant_caster<V<Ts...>> {
    static_assert(sizeof...(Ts) > 0, "Variant must consist of at least one alternative.");

    template <typename U, typename... Us>
    bool load_alternative(handle src, bool convert, type_list<U, Us...>) {
        auto caster = make_caster<U>();
        if (caster.load(src, convert)) {
            value = cast_op<U>(caster);
            return true;
        }
        return load_alternative(src, convert, type_list<Us...>{});
    }

    bool load_alternative(handle, bool, type_list<>) { return false; }

    bool load(handle src, bool convert) {
        // Do a first pass without conversions to improve constructor resolution.
        // E.g. `py::int_(1).cast<variant<double, int>>()` needs to fill the `int`
        // slot of the variant. Without two-pass loading `double` would be filled
        // because it appears first and a conversion is possible.
        if (convert && load_alternative(src, false, type_list<Ts...>{}))
            return true;
        return load_alternative(src, convert, type_list<Ts...>{});
    }

    template <typename Variant>
    static handle cast(Variant &&src, return_value_policy policy, handle parent) {
        return visit_helper<V>::call(variant_caster_visitor{policy, parent},
                                     std::forward<Variant>(src));
    }

    using Type = V<Ts...>;
    PYBIND11_TYPE_CASTER(Type, _("Union[") + detail::concat(make_caster<Ts>::name()...) + _("]"));
};

#if PYBIND11_HAS_VARIANT
template <typename... Ts>
struct type_caster<std::variant<Ts...>> : variant_caster<std::variant<Ts...>> { };
#endif
NAMESPACE_END(detail)

inline std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const handle &obj) {
    os << (std::string) str(obj);
    return os;
}

NAMESPACE_END(PYBIND11_NAMESPACE)

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#pragma warning(pop)
#endif