// The contents of this file are in the public domain. See LICENSE_FOR_EXAMPLE_PROGRAMS.txt /* This is an example illustrating the use the general purpose non-linear optimization routines from the dlib C++ Library. The library provides implementations of the conjugate gradient, BFGS, L-BFGS, and BOBYQA optimization algorithms. These algorithms allow you to find the minimum of a function of many input variables. This example walks though a few of the ways you might put these routines to use. */ #include <dlib/optimization.h> #include <iostream> using namespace std; using namespace dlib; // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // In dlib, the general purpose solvers optimize functions that take a column // vector as input and return a double. So here we make a typedef for a // variable length column vector of doubles. This is the type we will use to // represent the input to our objective functions which we will be minimizing. typedef matrix<double,0,1> column_vector; // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Below we create a few functions. When you get down into main() you will see that // we can use the optimization algorithms to find the minimums of these functions. // ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------doublerosen(const column_vector& m) /* This function computes what is known as Rosenbrock's function. It is a function of two input variables and has a global minimum at (1,1). So when we use this function to test out the optimization algorithms we will see that the minimum found is indeed at the point (1,1). */{constdoublex = m(0); constdoubley = m(1); // compute Rosenbrock's function and return the result return 100.0*pow(y - x*x,2) + pow(1 - x,2);}// This is a helper function used while optimizing the rosen() function. const column_vectorrosen_derivative(const column_vector& m) /*! ensures - returns the gradient vector for the rosen function !*/{constdoublex = m(0); constdoubley = m(1); // make us a column vector of length 2 column_vector res(2); // now compute the gradient vector res(0) = -400*x*(y-x*x) - 2*(1-x); // derivative of rosen() with respect to x res(1) = 200*(y-x*x); // derivative of rosen() with respect to y return res;}// This function computes the Hessian matrix for the rosen() fuction. This is // the matrix of second derivatives. matrix<double>rosen_hessian(const column_vector& m){constdoublex = m(0); constdoubley = m(1); matrix<double> res(2,2); // now compute the second derivatives res(0,0) = 1200*x*x - 400*y + 2; // second derivative with respect to x res(1,0) = res(0,1) = -400*x; // derivative with respect to x and y res(1,1) = 200; // second derivative with respect to y return res;}// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- classtest_function{/* This object is an example of what is known as a "function object" in C++. It is simply an object with an overloaded operator(). This means it can be used in a way that is similar to a normal C function. The interesting thing about this sort of function is that it can have state. In this example, our test_function object contains a column_vector as its state and it computes the mean squared error between this stored column_vector and the arguments to its operator() function. This is a very simple function, however, in general you could compute any function you wanted here. An example of a typical use would be to find the parameters of some regression function that minimized the mean squared error on a set of data. In this case the arguments to the operator() function would be the parameters of your regression function. You would loop over all your data samples and compute the output of the regression function for each data sample given the parameters and return a measure of the total error. The dlib optimization functions could then be used to find the parameters that minimized the error. */ public:test_function( const column_vector& input ){target = input;}doubleoperator() ( const column_vector& arg) const{// return the mean squared error between the target vector and the input vector return mean(squared(target-arg));}private: column_vector target;}; // ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- classrosen_model{/*! This object is a "function model" which can be used with the find_min_trust_region() routine. !*/ public: typedef ::column_vector column_vector; typedef matrix<double> general_matrix;doubleoperator() ( const column_vector& x ) const{return rosen(x);}voidget_derivative_and_hessian( const column_vector& x, column_vector& der, general_matrix& hess ) const{der = rosen_derivative(x); hess = rosen_hessian(x);}}; // ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------intmain(){try{// make a column vector of length 2 column_vector starting_point(2); // Set the starting point to (4,8). This is the point the optimization algorithm // will start out from and it will move it closer and closer to the function's // minimum point. So generally you want to try and compute a good guess that is // somewhat near the actual optimum value. starting_point = 4, 8; // The first example below finds the minimum of the rosen() function and uses the // analytical derivative computed by rosen_derivative(). Since it is very easy to // make a mistake while coding a function like rosen_derivative() it is a good idea // to compare your derivative function against a numerical approximation and see if // the results are similar. If they are very different then you probably made a // mistake. So the first thing we do is compare the results at a test point: cout << "Difference between analytic derivative and numerical approximation of derivative: " << length(derivative(rosen)(starting_point) - rosen_derivative(starting_point)) << endl; cout << "Find the minimum of the rosen function()" << endl; // Now we use the find_min() function to find the minimum point. The first argument // to this routine is the search strategy we want to use. The second argument is the // stopping strategy. Below I'm using the objective_delta_stop_strategy which just // says that the search should stop when the change in the function being optimized // is small enough. // The other arguments to find_min() are the function to be minimized, its derivative, // then the starting point, and the last is an acceptable minimum value of the rosen() // function. That is, if the algorithm finds any inputs to rosen() that gives an output // value <= -1 then it will stop immediately. Usually you supply a number smaller than // the actual global minimum. So since the smallest output of the rosen function is 0 // we just put -1 here which effectively causes this last argument to be disregarded. find_min(bfgs_search_strategy(), // Use BFGS search algorithm objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), // Stop when the change in rosen() is less than 1e-7 rosen, rosen_derivative, starting_point, -1); // Once the function ends the starting_point vector will contain the optimum point // of (1,1). cout << "rosen solution:\n" << starting_point << endl; // Now let's try doing it again with a different starting point and the version // of find_min() that doesn't require you to supply a derivative function. // This version will compute a numerical approximation of the derivative since // we didn't supply one to it. starting_point = -94, 5.2; find_min_using_approximate_derivatives(bfgs_search_strategy(), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), rosen, starting_point, -1); // Again the correct minimum point is found and stored in starting_point cout << "rosen solution:\n" << starting_point << endl; // Here we repeat the same thing as above but this time using the L-BFGS // algorithm. L-BFGS is very similar to the BFGS algorithm, however, BFGS // uses O(N^2) memory where N is the size of the starting_point vector. // The L-BFGS algorithm however uses only O(N) memory. So if you have a // function of a huge number of variables the L-BFGS algorithm is probably // a better choice. starting_point = 0.8, 1.3; find_min(lbfgs_search_strategy(10), // The 10 here is basically a measure of how much memory L-BFGS will use. objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7).be_verbose(), // Adding be_verbose() causes a message to be // printed for each iteration of optimization. rosen, rosen_derivative, starting_point, -1); cout << endl << "rosen solution: \n" << starting_point << endl; starting_point = -94, 5.2; find_min_using_approximate_derivatives(lbfgs_search_strategy(10), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), rosen, starting_point, -1); cout << "rosen solution: \n"<< starting_point << endl; // dlib also supports solving functions subject to bounds constraints on // the variables. So for example, if you wanted to find the minimizer // of the rosen function where both input variables were in the range // 0.1 to 0.8 you would do it like this: starting_point = 0.1, 0.1; // Start with a valid point inside the constraint box. find_min_box_constrained(lbfgs_search_strategy(10), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-9), rosen, rosen_derivative, starting_point, 0.1, 0.8); // Here we put the same [0.1 0.8] range constraint on each variable, however, you // can put different bounds on each variable by passing in column vectors of // constraints for the last two arguments rather than scalars. cout << endl << "constrained rosen solution: \n" << starting_point << endl; // You can also use an approximate derivative like so: starting_point = 0.1, 0.1; find_min_box_constrained(bfgs_search_strategy(), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-9), rosen, derivative(rosen), starting_point, 0.1, 0.8); cout << endl << "constrained rosen solution: \n" << starting_point << endl; // In many cases, it is useful if we also provide second derivative information // to the optimizers. Two examples of how we can do that are shown below. starting_point = 0.8, 1.3; find_min(newton_search_strategy(rosen_hessian), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), rosen, rosen_derivative, starting_point, -1); cout << "rosen solution: \n"<< starting_point << endl; // We can also use find_min_trust_region(), which is also a method which uses // second derivatives. For some kinds of non-convex function it may be more // reliable than using a newton_search_strategy with find_min(). starting_point = 0.8, 1.3; find_min_trust_region(objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), rosen_model(), starting_point, 10 // initial trust region radius ); cout << "rosen solution: \n"<< starting_point << endl; // Now let's look at using the test_function object with the optimization // functions. cout << "\nFind the minimum of the test_function" << endl; column_vector target(4); starting_point.set_size(4); // This variable will be used as the target of the test_function. So, // our simple test_function object will have a global minimum at the // point given by the target. We will then use the optimization // routines to find this minimum value. target = 3, 5, 1, 7; // set the starting point far from the global minimum starting_point = 1,2,3,4; find_min_using_approximate_derivatives(bfgs_search_strategy(), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), test_function(target), starting_point, -1); // At this point the correct value of (3,5,1,7) should be found and stored in starting_point cout << "test_function solution:\n" << starting_point << endl; // Now let's try it again with the conjugate gradient algorithm. starting_point = -4,5,99,3; find_min_using_approximate_derivatives(cg_search_strategy(), objective_delta_stop_strategy(1e-7), test_function(target), starting_point, -1); cout << "test_function solution:\n" << starting_point << endl; // Finally, let's try the BOBYQA algorithm. This is a technique specially // designed to minimize a function in the absence of derivative information. // Generally speaking, it is the method of choice if derivatives are not available. starting_point = -4,5,99,3; find_min_bobyqa(test_function(target), starting_point, 9, // number of interpolation points uniform_matrix<double>(4,1, -1e100), // lower bound constraint uniform_matrix<double>(4,1, 1e100), // upper bound constraint 10, // initial trust region radius 1e-6, // stopping trust region radius 100 // max number of objective function evaluations ); cout << "test_function solution:\n" << starting_point << endl;}catch (std::exception& e){cout << e.what() << endl;}}